38 (due to the particularly heavy impact of cluster bombs during this war, laos was a strong advocate of the convention on Cluster Munitions to ban the weapons, and was host to the first meeting of States Parties to the convention in november 2010. 39 In 1975 the pathet lao, along with the vietnam people's Army, and backed by the soviet Union, overthrew the royalist lao government, forcing King savang Vatthana to abdicate on 2 December 1975. He later died in prison. Between 20,000 and 62,000 laotians died during the civil War. 40 On 2 December 1975, after taking control of the country, the pathet lao government under kaysone Phomvihane renamed the country as the lao people's Democratic Republic and signed agreements giving vietnam the right to station armed forces and to appoint advisers to assist. In a paper published in 1990, Hmong -rights activist Vang Pobzeb wrote that laos was colonial territory of vietnam since december 2, 1975 and was directed by vietnam in its internal and external affairs.
1994, human, development, reports
Laos was a key part of the real vietnam War since parts of laos were invaded and occupied by north vietnam for use as a supply route for its war against the south. In response, the United States initiated a bombing campaign against the north vietnamese positions, supported regular and irregular anticommunist forces in laos and supported south vietnamese incursions into laos. In 1968 the north vietnamese Army launched a multi-division attack to help the pathet lao to fight the royal lao army. The attack resulted in the army largely demobilising, leaving the conflict to irregular ethnic Hmong forces of the "U.S. Secret Army" backed by the United States and Thailand, and led by general Vang pao. Massive aerial bombardment against the pathet lao and invading people's Army of vietnam forces were carried out by the United States to prevent the collapse of the royal Kingdom of laos central government, and to deny the use of the ho chi minh Trail. Between 19, the. Dropped two million tons of bombs on laos, nearly equal to the.1 million tons of bombs the. Dropped on Europe and Asia during all of World War ii, making laos the most heavily bombed country in history relative to the size of its population; The new York times noted this was "nearly a ton for every person in laos". 37 Some 80 million bombs failed to explode and remain scattered throughout the country, rendering vast swathes of land impossible to cultivate and killing or maiming essay 50 laotians every year.
During the first Indochina war, the Indochinese communist Party formed the pathet lao resistance organisation. The pathet lao began a war against the aggressive french Colonial forces with the aid of the vietnamese independence organisation (the viet Minh ). In 1950 the French were forced to give laos semi-autonomy as an "associated state" within the French Union. France remained in de facto control until, when laos gained full independence as a constitutional monarchy. Independence and Communist Rule (1953present) edit main articles: History of laos since 1945, kingdom of laos, and laotian civil War The first Indochina war took place across French Indochina and eventually led to French defeat and the signing of a peace from accord for laos. In 1955, the us department of Defense created a special Programs evaluation Office to replace French support of the royal lao army against the communist Pathet lao as part of the us containment policy. In 1960, amidst a series of rebellions in the kingdom of laos, fighting broke out between the royal lao army and the communist North vietnam -backed, and soviet Union -backed Pathet lao guerillas. A second Provisional government of National Unity formed by Prince souvanna Phouma in 1962 was unsuccessful, and the situation steadily deteriorated into large scale civil war between the royal laotian government and the pathet lao. The pathet lao were backed militarily by the nva and vietcong.
35 As late as 1945, the French even drew up an ambitious plan to move massive vietnamese population to three key areas,. The vientiane Plain, savannakhet region, bolaven Plateau, which was only discarded by japanese invasion of Indochina. 35 Otherwise, according to martin Stuart-Fox, the lao might well have lost control over their own country. 35 During World War ii in laos, vichy France, fascist Thailand, imperial Japan, resume free france, and Chinese nationalist armies occupied laos. On, a nationalist group declared laos once more independent, with luang Prabang as its capital but on two battalions of Japanese troops occupied the city. 36 The japanese attempted to force sisavang Vong (the king of luang Phrabang) to declare laotian independence but on 8 April he instead simply declared an end to laos's status as a french protectorate. The king then secretly sent Prince kindavong to represent laos to the Allied forces and Prince sisavang as representative to the japanese. 36 When Japan surrendered, some lao nationalists (including Prince Phetsarath ) declared laotian independence, but by early 1946, French troops had reoccupied the country and conferred limited autonomy on laos.
Laos never had any importance for France 32 other than as a buffer state between Thailand and the more economically important Annam and Tonkin. During their rule, the French introduced the corvée, a system that forced every male lao to contribute 10 days of manual labour per year to the colonial government. Laos produced tin, rubber, and coffee, but never accounted for more than one percent of French Indochina's exports. By 1940, around 600 French citizens lived in laos. 33 Under the French rule, the vietnamese were encouraged to migrate to laos, which was seen by the French colonists as a rational solution to a practical problem within the confines of an Indochina-wide colonial space. By 1943, the vietnamese population stood at nearly 40,000, forming the majority in the largest cities of laos and enjoying the right to elect their own leaders. 35 As a result, 53 of the population of vientiane, 85 of Thakhek and 62 of pakse were vietnamese, with only an exception of luang Phrabang where the population was predominantly lao.
National, human, development, report : Human
Between 17, burmese armies overran northern laos and annexed luang Phrabang, while Champasak system eventually came under siamese suzerainty. Chao anouvong was installed as a vassal king of vientiane by the siamese. He encouraged a renaissance of lao fine arts and literature and improved relations with luang Phrabang. Under vietnamese pressure, he rebelled against the siamese in 1826. The rebellion failed and vientiane was ransacked.
29 Anouvong was taken to bangkok as a prisoner, where he died. A siamese military campaign in laos in 1876 was described by a british observer as having been "transformed into slave-hunting raids on a large scale". 30 French laos (18931953) edit main articles: French Protectorate of laos and First Indochina war Local lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard,. . 1900 In the late 19th century, luang Prabang was ransacked by the Chinese Black Flag Army. 31 France rescued King Oun Kham and added luang Phrabang to the Protectorate of French Indochina. Shortly after, the kingdom of Champasak and the territory of vientiane were added to the protectorate. King Sisavang Vong of luang Phrabang became ruler of a unified laos and vientiane once again became the capital.
He made Theravada buddhism the state religion and Lan Xang prospered. Within 20 years of its formation, the kingdom expanded eastward to Champa and along the Annamite mountains in vietnam. His ministers, unable to tolerate his ruthlessness, forced him into exile to the present-day thai province of Nan in 1373, 28 where he died. Fa ngum's eldest son, oun heuan, ascended to the throne under the name samsenthai and reigned for 43 years. Lan Xang became an important trade centre during Samsenthai's reign, but after his death in 1421 it collapsed into warring factions for 100 years.
In 1520, Photisarath came to the throne and moved the capital from luang Prabang to vientiane to avoid a burmese invasion. Setthathirat became king in 1548, after his father was killed, and ordered the construction of what became the symbol of laos, That luang. Setthathirat disappeared in the mountains on his way back from a military expedition into cambodia and Lan Xang began to rapidly decline. It was not until 1637, when sourigna vongsa ascended the throne, that Lan Xang further expanded its frontiers. His reign is often regarded as laos's golden age. When he died without an heir, the kingdom split into three principalities.
Human, development, report 1994 : New dimensions
23 Stone artifacts including hoabinhian types have been found at sites dating to the late Pleistocene in northern laos. 24 Archaeological evidence suggests agriculturist society developed during the 4th millennium. 25 Burial jars and other kinds of summary sepulchers suggest a complex society in which bronze objects appeared around 1500 bc, and iron tools were known from 700. The proto-historic period is characterised by contact with Chinese and Indian civilisations. According to linguistic and other historical evidence, tai-speaking tribes migrated southwestward to the modern territories of laos and Thailand from guangxi sometime between the 8th10th centuries. 26 Lan Xang edit main article: Lan Xang laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang (Million Elephants which was founded in the 14th century by a lao prince fa ngum, 27 :223 who, with 10,000 Khmer troops, took over vientiane. Ngum was descended from a long line of lao kings that traced back to Khoun boulom.
The official language is lao. Laos is a multi-ethnic country, with the politically and culturally dominant lao people making up about 55 percent of premier the population, mostly in the lowlands. Mon-Khmer groups, the Hmong and other indigenous hill tribes, accounting for 45 percent of the population, live in the foothills and mountains. Laos's ambitious strategies for development are based on generating electricity from its rivers and selling the power to its neighbours, namely Thailand, china and vietnam, as well as its initiative to become a "land-linked" nation, shown by the planning of four new railways connecting laos. 19 This, along with growth of the mining sector, laos has been referred to as one of East Asia and Pacific's Fastest Growing Economies by the world Bank, with annual gdp growth averaging 7 for the past decade. 20 21 Contents Etymology edit The English word laos was coined by the French, who united the three lao kingdoms in French Indochina in 1893 and named the country as the plural of the dominant and most common ethnic group, which are the lao people. In the lao language, the country's name is " muang lao " or "Pathet lao" both literally mean "lao country". 22 History edit main article: History of laos Early history edit An ancient human skull was recovered from the tam pa ling cave in the Annamite mountains in northern laos; the skull is at least 46,000 years old, making it the oldest modern human fossil.
world. In 2014, the country ranked 141st on the human development Index (hdi indicating lower medium development. 15 According to the Global Hunger Index (2015 laos ranks as the 29th hungriest nation in the world out of the list of the 52 nations with the worst hunger situation(s). 16 The country has also had a poor human rights record. Laos is a member of the Asia-pacific Trade Agreement (apta association of southeast Asian Nations (asean east Asia summit and la francophonie. Laos applied for membership of the world Trade Organisation (WTO) in 1997; on 2 February 2013, it was granted full membership. 17 It is a one-party socialist republic espousing MarxismLeninism governed by the lao people's revolutionary party, in which the party leadership is dominated by military figures. 18 The capital and largest city is vientiane. Other major cities include luang Prabang, savannakhet and pakse.
12 due to lan Xang's central geographical location in thesis southeast Asia, the kingdom was able to become a popular hub for overland trade, becoming wealthy economically as well as culturally. 12 After a period of internal conflict, lan Xang broke off into three separate kingdoms— luang Phrabang, vientiane and Champasak. In 1893, it became a french protectorate, with the three territories uniting to form what is now known as the country of laos. It briefly gained freedom in 1945 after Japanese occupation, but was recolonised by France until it won autonomy in 1949. Laos became independent in 1953, with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. Shortly after independence, a long civil war ended the monarchy, when the communist Pathet lao movement came to power in 1975. During the first years of Communist rule, laos was dependent on military and economic aid supported by the soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. According to the anti-corruption non-governmental organisation Transparency International, laos remains one of the most corrupt countries in the world. This has deterred foreign investment and created major problems with the rule of law, including the nation's ability to enforce contract and business regulation.
Human, development, report 1994 : New dimensions of human security
This article is about the country. For other uses, see. Coordinates : 18N 105E / 18N 105E / 18; 105. Laos ( /lɑoʊs/ ( listen 8 /laʊs, lɑɒs, leɪɒs/ ; 9 10, lao :, lao pronunciation: láw, lāo ; French : laos officially the, lao people's Democratic Republic (Lao:, sathalanalat Paxathipatai paxaxon lao ; French : République démocratique populaire lao commonly referred to business by its. Muang lao lao :, muang lao is a landlocked country in the heart of the, indochinese peninsula. Mainland southeast Asia, bordered by, myanmar (Burma) and, china to the northwest, vietnam to the east, cambodia to the southwest, and Thailand to the west and southwest. 11 Present-day laos traces its historic and cultural identity to the kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (Kingdom of a million Elephants Under the White parasol which existed for four centuries as one of the largest kingdoms in southeast Asia.