The major anthropogenic sources of environmental manganese include municipal wastewater discharges, sewage sludge, mining and mineral processing, emissions from alloy, steel, and iron production, combustion of fossil fuels, and, to a much lesser extent, emissions from the combustion of fuel additives. Manganese is released to air mainly as particulate matter, and the fate and transport of the particles depend on their size and density and on wind speed and direction. Some manganese compounds are readily soluble in water. Manganese exists in the aquatic environment in two main forms: Mn(II) and Mn(IV). Movement between these two forms occurs via oxidation and reduction reactions that may be abiotic or microbially mediated. The environmental chemistry of manganese is largely governed by pH and redox conditions; Mn(II) dominates at lower pH and redox potential, with an increasing proportion of colloidal manganese oxyhydroxides above.5 in non-dystrophic waters. Primary chemical factors controlling sedimentary manganese cycling are the oxygen content of the overlying water, the penetration of oxygen into the sediments, and benthic organic carbon supply. Manganese in soil can migrate as particulate matter to air or water, or soluble manganese compounds can be leached from the soil.
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Information on the peer review of this cicad is presented in Appendix. This cicad was considered and approved as an international assessment at a meeting of the final review board, held in Varna, bulgaria, on 811 September 2003. Participants at the final review board meeting are presented in Appendix. International Chemical Safety cards on selected manganese compounds (icscs 174, 175, 290, 754, 977, 1169, and 1398 produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety in a separate, peer-reviewed process (ipcs, 1999b,c, 2001, 2003a,b,c, d have also been reproduced in this document. Manganese (Mn) is a naturally occurring element that is found in rock, soil, and water. It is ubiquitous in the environment and comprises about.1 of the earths crust. Crustal rock is a major source of manganese found in the atmosphere. Ocean spray, forest fires, vegetation, and volcanic activity are other major natural atmospheric sources of manganese. Important sources of dissolved manganese are anaerobic environments where particulate manganese oxides are reduced, the direct reduction of particulate manganese oxides in aerobic environments, the natural weathering of Mn(II)-containing minerals, and acidic environments. The major pool of manganese in soils originates from crustal sources, with other sources including integration direct atmospheric deposition, wash-off from plant and other surfaces, leaching from plant tissues, and the shedding or excretion of material such as leaves, dead plant and animal material, and animal.
Representatives of nongovernmental organizations may be invited to observe the proceedings of the final review board. Observers may participate in board discussions only at the invitation of the Chairperson, and business they may not participate in the final decision-making process. Executive summary this cicad on manganese and its compounds (environmental aspects) was based primarily on the report Toxicological profile for manganese (update), prepared by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease registry of the us department of health and Human Services (atsdr, 2000). Secondary sources of information included cicad. 12 on manganese and its compounds (ipcs, 1999a) and data identified following a comprehensive literature search of relevant databases conducted up to december 2002 to identify any relevant references published subsequent to those incorporated in these two reports. For information regarding the assessment of human health effects of manganese, the reader should refer to cicad. Manganese fungicides have been referred to in the document for source and fate information only, and no attempt has been made to evaluate this group of chemicals for environmental effect. Information on the preparation and peer review of the source document is presented in Appendix.
The resulting second draft is submitted to a final review board together with the reviewers comments. At any stage in the international review process, a consultative group may be necessary to address specific areas of the science. When a cicad is prepared de novo, a consultative group is normally convened. The cicad final review board has several important functions: to ensure that each cicad has been subjected to an appropriate and thorough peer review; to verify that the peer reviewers comments have been addressed appropriately; to provide guidance to those responsible for the preparation. Board members serve in their personal capacity, not as representatives of any organization, government, or industry. They are selected because of their expertise in human and environmental toxicology or because of their experience in the regulation of chemicals. Boards are chosen according to the range of expertise required for a meeting and the need for balanced really geographic representation. Board members, authors, reviewers, consultants, and advisers who participate in the preparation of a cicad are required to declare any real or potential conflict of interest in relation to the subjects under discussion at any stage of the process.
The first draft is usually based on an existing national, regional, or international review. When no appropriate source document is available, a cicad may be produced de novo. Authors of the first draft are usually, but not necessarily, from the institution that developed the original review. A standard outline has been developed to encourage consistency in form. The first draft undergoes primary review by ipcs to ensure that it meets the specified criteria for cicads. The second stage involves international peer review by scientists known for their particular expertise and by scientists selected from an international roster compiled by ipcs through recommendations from ipcs national Contact points and from ipcs participating Institutions. Adequate time is allowed for the selected experts to undertake a thorough review. Authors are required to take reviewers comments into account and revise their draft, if necessary.
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These procedures are designed to take advantage of the expertise that exists around the world — expertise that is required to produce the high-quality evaluations of toxicological, exposure, and essay other data that are necessary for assessing risks to human health and/or the environment. The ipcs risk Assessment Steering Group advises the coordinator, ipcs, on the selection of chemicals for an ipcs risk assessment based on the following criteria: there is the probability of exposure; and/or there is significant toxicity/ecotoxicity. Thus, it is typical of a priority chemical that it is of transboundary concern; it is of concern to a range of countries (developed, developing, and those with economies in transition) for possible risk management; there is significant international trade; it has high production volume;. Advice from Risk Assessment Steering Group. Criteria of priority: there is the probability of exposure; and/or there is significant toxicity/ ecotoxicity.
Thus, it is typical of a priority chemical that it is of transboundary concern; it is of concern to a range of countries (developed, developing, and those with economies in transition) for possible risk management; there is significant international trade; the production volume is high;. Special emphasis is placed on avoiding duplication of effort by who and other international organizations. A prerequisite of the production of a cicad is the availability of a recent high-quality national/regional risk assessment document source document. The source document and the cicad may be produced in parallel. If the source document does not contain an environmental section, this may be produced de novo, provided it is not controversial. If no source document is available, ipcs may produce a de novo risk assessment document if the cost is justified. Depending on the complexity and extent of controversy of the issues involved, the steering group may advise on different levels of peer review: standard ipcs contact points above specialized experts above consultative group The Steering Group will also advise ipcs on the appropriate form.
Cicads are not a summary of all available data on a particular chemical; rather, they include only that information considered critical for characterization of the risk posed by the chemical. The critical studies are, however, presented in sufficient detail to support the conclusions drawn. For additional information, the reader should consult the identified source documents upon which the cicad has been based. Risks to human health and the environment will vary considerably depending upon the type and extent of exposure. Responsible authorities are strongly encouraged to characterize risk on the basis of locally measured or predicted exposure scenarios.
To assist the reader, examples of exposure estimation and risk characterization are provided in cicads, whenever possible. These examples cannot be considered as representing all possible exposure situations, but are provided as guidance only. The reader is referred to ehc 170. 1, while every effort is made to ensure that cicads represent the current status of knowledge, new information is being developed constantly. Unless otherwise stated, cicads are based on a search of the scientific literature to the date shown in the executive summary. In the event that a reader becomes aware of new information that would change the conclusions drawn in a cicad, the reader is requested to contact ipcs to inform it of the new information. Procedures, the flow chart on page 2 shows the procedures followed to produce a cicad.
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Table of contents, foreword, concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (cicads) are the latest in a family of publications biography from the International Programme on Chemical Safety (ipcs) — a cooperative programme of the world health Organization (who the International Labour Organization (ilo and the United Nations. Cicads join the Environmental health Criteria documents (EHCs) as authoritative documents on the risk assessment of chemicals. International Chemical Safety cards on the relevant chemical(s) are attached at the end of the cicad, to provide the reader with concise information on the protection of human health and on emergency action. They are produced in a separate peer-reviewed procedure at ipcs. They may be complemented by information from ipcs poison Information Monographs (pim similarly produced separately from the cicad process. Cicads are concise documents that provide summaries of the relevant scientific information concerning the potential effects of chemicals upon human health and/or the environment. They are usually based on selected bill national or regional evaluation documents or on existing ehcs. Before acceptance for publication as cicads by ipcs, these documents undergo extensive peer review by internationally selected experts to ensure their completeness, accuracy in the way in which the original data are represented, and the validity of the conclusions drawn. The primary objective of cicads is characterization of hazard and doseresponse from exposure to a chemical.
Requests for permission to reproduce or translate who publications — whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution — should be addressed to publications, at the above address (fax: ; email: ). The designations employed and different the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the world health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities,. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the world health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. The world health Organization does not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. Risk assessment activities of the International Programme on Chemical Safety, including the production of Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents, are supported financially by the department of health and Department for Environment, food rural Affairs, uk, environmental Protection Agency, food and Drug Administration, and National Institute. Technically and linguistically edited by marla Sheffer, Ottawa, canada, and printed by wissenchaftliche verlagsgesellschaft mbh, stuttgart, germany.
the, international Programme on Chemical Safety (ipcs), established in 1980, is a joint venture of the United Nations Environment Programme (unep the International Labour Organization (ilo and the world health Organization (WHO). The overall objectives of the ipcs are to establish the scientific basis for assessment of the risk to human health and the environment from exposure to chemicals, through international peer review processes, as a prerequisite for the promotion of chemical safety, and to provide technical. The, inter-Organization Programme for the sound Management of Chemicals (iomc) was established in 1995 by unep, ilo, the food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, who, the United Nations Industrial development Organization, the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, and the Organisation for. The purpose of the iomc is to promote coordination of the policies and activities pursued by the participating Organizations, jointly or separately, to achieve the sound management of chemicals in relation to human health and the environment. Who library cataloguing-in-Publication Data, manganese and its compounds : environmental aspects. (Concise international chemical assessment document ; 63) nganese - toxicity.Risk assessment.Environmental exposure ternational Programme on Chemical Safety ries, isbn (LC/nlm classification: qv 290). Issn, world health Organization 2004, all rights reserved. Publications of the world health Organization can be obtained from Marketing and Dissemination, world health Organization, 20 avenue appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel: ; fax: ; email: ).
Epa awards 4,000,000 in grants to research lead in drinking water. All Research Grants in the news. Manganese And Its Compounds:Environmental Aspects (Cicads 63, 2004). This report contains the collective views book of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization, or the world health Organization. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document. First draft prepared by. Malcolm, and. Dobson, centre for Ecology hydrology, monks wood, United Kingdom.
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Research Grants us epa, jump to eksempel main content, epa awards 69,183 Grant to kennesaw State University Project to reduce aircraft Emissions. Epa awards 148,000 to two northern California colleges for innovative technology projects. Epa awards 40,000 to uc riverside for innovative technology project. Epa awards 75,000 Grant to Clarkson University for Innovative food Waste Project. Epa awards 75,000 to montclair State University for Innovative stormwater Management Project. Epa awards 2,000,000 to virginia teach to research lead in drinking water. Epa awards 1,900,000 to water Research foundation to research lead in drinking water.