73 74 Depending on the region, the dominant portion of zakat went typically to Amil (the zakat collectors) or Sabīlillāh (those fighting for religious cause, the caretaker of local mosque, or those working in the cause of God such as proselytizing non-Muslims to convert. 58 75 Contemporary practice edit According to the researcher Russell Powell in 2010, zakat was mandatory by state law in Libya, malaysia, pakistan, saudi Arabia, sudan, and Yemen. There were government-run voluntary zakat contribution programs in Bahrain, bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, iran, jordan, kuwait, lebanon, and the United Arab Emirates. 76 77 Collection edit today, in most Muslim countries, zakat is at the discretion of Muslims over how and whether to pay, typically enforced by peer pressure, fear of God, and an individual's personal feelings. 16 Among the sunni muslims, zakat committees are established, linked to a religious cause or local mosque, which collect zakat. 78 Among the Shia muslims, deputies on behalf of Imams collect the zakat.
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69 During the reign of Ali ibn Abu talib, the issue of zakat was tied to legitimacy of his government. After Ali, his supporters refused to pay zakat to muawiyah i, as they did not recognize his legitimacy. 64 The practice of Islamic state-administered zakat was short-lived in Medina. During the reign of Umar bin Abdul aziz (717720. it is reported that no one in Medina needed the zakat. After him, zakat came more to be considered as an individual responsibility. 64 This view changed over Islamic history. Sunni muslims and rulers, for example, considered collection and disbursement of zakat as one of the functions of an Islamic state; this view has continued in modern Islamic countries. 70 zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam, and in various Islamic polities of the past was expected to be paid by all practising Muslims who have the financial means ( nisab ). 71 In addition to their zakat obligations, muslims were assistant encouraged to make voluntary contributions ( sadaqat ). 72 The zakat was not collected from non-Muslims, although they were required to pay the jizyah tax.
64 Schact front suggests that the idea of zakat may have entered Islam from Judaism, with roots in the hebrew and Aramaic word zakut. 25 65 However, some Islamic scholars 65 disagree that the qur'anic verses on zakat (or zakah) have roots in Judaism. 66 The caliph Abu bakr, believed by sunni muslims to be muhammad's successor, was the first to institute a statutory zakat system. 67 Abu bakr established the principle that the zakat must be paid to the legitimate representative of the Prophet's authority (i.e. 64 Other Muslims disagreed and refused to pay zakat to Abu bakr, leading to accusations of apostasy and, ultimately, the ridda wars. The second and third caliphs, Umar bin Al-Khattab and Usman ibn Affan, continued Abu bakr's codification of the zakat. 64 Uthman also modified the zakat collection protocol by decreeing that only "apparent" wealth was taxable, which had the effect of limiting zakat to mostly being paid on agricultural land and produce.
60 In recent times, some state that zakat may be paid to non-Muslims after the needs of Muslims have been met, finding nothing in the quran or sunna to indicate that zakat should be paid to muslims only. 57 Additionally, the zakat funds may be spent on the administration of a centralized zakat collection system. 36 Representatives of the salafi movement include propagation of Islam and any struggle in righteous cause among permissible ways of spending, while others argue that zakat funds should be spent on social welfare and economic development projects, or science and technology education. 57 Some hold spending them for defense to be permissible if a muslim country is under attack. 57 Also, it is forbidden to disburse zakat funds into investments instead of being given to one of the above eight categories of recipients. Citation needed role in society edit The zakat is considered by muslims to be an act of piety through which one expresses concern for the well-being of fellow Muslims, 53 as well as preserving social harmony business between the wealthy and the poor. 61 zakat promotes a more equitable redistribution of wealth and fosters a sense of solidarity amongst members of the Ummah. 62 Historical practice edit zakat, an Islamic practice initiated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was first collected on the first day of Muharram. 63 It has played an important role throughout its history.
According to the quran's Surah Al-Tawba, there are eight categories of people ( asnaf ) who qualify to benefit from zakat funds. 49 "Alms are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer the (funds for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled (to Truth for those in bondage and in debt; in the cause of Allah; and for the wayfarer: (thus is it). have traditionally interpreted this verse as identifying the following eight categories of Muslim causes to be the proper recipients of zakat: 51 52 Those living without means of livelihood ( Al-Fuqarā' 51 the poor 52 Those who cannot meet their basic needs ( Al-Masākīn. h8.17 wayfarers, stranded travellers ( Ibnu Al-Sabīl 51 travellers who are traveling with a worthy goal but cannot reach their destination without financial assistance 52 54 zakat should not be given to one's own parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren, spouses or the descendants of the Prophet. 57 neither the quran nor the hadiths specify the relative division of zakat into the above eight categories. 58 According to the reliance of the Traveller, the Shafi'i school requires zakat is to be distributed equally among the eight categories of recipients, while the hanafi school permits zakat to be distributed to all the categories, some of them, or just one of them. 56 :h8.7 Classical schools of Islamic law, including Shafi'i, are unanimous that collectors of zakat are to be paid first, with the balance to be distributed equally amongst the remaining seven categories of recipients, even in cases where one group's need is more demanding. 59 Muslim scholars disagree whether zakat recipients can include non-Muslims. Islamic scholarship, historically, has taught that only muslims can be recipients of zakat.
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45 Additionally, those who failed to pay the zakat would face god's punishment in the afterlife on the day of Judgment. 29 The consequence of failure to pay zakat has been a subject of extensive legal debate, particularly when a muslim is willing to pay zakat but refuses to pay it to a certain group or the state. 45 46 According to classical jurists, if the collector is unjust in the collection of zakat but just in its distribution, the concealment of property from him is allowed. 45 If, on the other hand, the collector is just in the collection but unjust in the distribution, the concealment of property from him is an obligation ( wajib ). 45 Furthermore, if the zakat is concealed from a just collector because the property owner wanted to pay his zakat to the poor himself, they held that he should not be punished for.
45 If collection of zakat by force was not possible, use of military force to extract it was seen as justified, as was done by Abu bakr during the ridda wars, on the argument that refusing to submit to just orders is a form. 45 However, Abu hanifa, proposal the founder of the hanafi school, disapproved of fighting when the property owners undertake to distribute the zakat to the poor themselves. 45 Some classical and contemporary scholars such as Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh and Yusuf al-Qaradawi have stated that the person who fails to pay zakat should have the payment taken from them, along with half of his wealth. 47 48 In modern states where zakat payment is compulsory, failure to pay is regulated by state law similarly to tax evasion. Citation needed distribution edit recipients waiting to receive zakat in India.
36 zakat is additionally payable on agricultural goods, precious metals, minerals, and livestock at a rate varying between.5 and 20 (1/5 depending on the type of goods. 37 38 zakat is usually payable on assets continuously owned over one lunar year that are in excess of the nisab, a minimum monetary value. 39 However, Islamic scholars have disagreed on this issue. For example, abu hanifa did not regard the nisab limit to be a pre-requisite for zakat, in the case of land crops, fruits and minerals. 40 Other differences between Islamic scholars on zakat and nisab are acknowledged as follows by yusuf al-Qaradawi, 15 Unlike prayers, we observe that even the ratio, the exemption, the kinds of wealth that are zakatable are subject to differences among scholars. Such differences have serious implications for Muslims at large when it comes to their application of the Islamic obligation of zakat.
For example, some scholars consider the wealth of children and insane individuals zakatable, others don't. Some scholars consider all agricultural products zakatable, others restrict zakat to specific kinds only. Some consider debts zakatable, others don't. Similar differences exist for business assets and women's jewelry. Some require certain minimum (nisab) for zakatability, some don't. The same kind of differences also exist about the disbursement of zakat. Shiekh Mahmud Shaltut 15 failure to pay edit some classical jurists have held the view that any muslim who consciously refuses to pay zakat is an apostate, since the failure to believe that it is a religious duty ( fard ) is a form. However, prevailing opinion among classical jurists prescribed sanctions such as fines, imprisonment or corporal punishment.
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29 The hadith contain advice on the good state-authorized collection of the zakat. The collectors are required not to take more than what is due, and those who are paying the zakat are asked not to evade payment. The hadith also warn of punishment for those who take zakat when they are not eligible to receive it (see distribution below). 29 Amount edit main article: Calculation of zakāt The amount of zakat to be paid by an individual depends on the amount of money and the type of assets the individual possesses. The quran does not provide essay specific guidelines on which types of wealth are taxable under the zakat, nor does it specify percentages to be given. But the customary practice is that the amount of zakat paid on capital assets (e.g. Money).5 (1/40).
29 Hadith edit each of the most trusted hadith collections in Islam have a book dedicated to zakat. Sahih bukhari's book 24, 30 Sahih Muslim's book 5, 31 and Sunan Abu-dawud's book 9 32 discuss various aspects of zakat, including who must pay, how much, when and what. The.5 rate is also mentioned in the hadiths. 33 The hadiths admonish those nato who do not give the zakat. According to the hadith, refusal to pay or mockery of those who pay zakat is a sign of hypocrisy, and God will not accept the prayers of such people. 34 The sunna also describes God's punishment for those who refuse or fail to pay zakat. 35 On the day of Judgment, those who did not give the zakat will be held accountable and punished.
God and a muslim. 25 Verse.177 (Picktall translation) sums up the quranic view of charity and alms giving (Another name for zakat is the "Poor due it is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the east and the west; but righteous is he who believeth. And those who keep their treaty when they make one, and the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such are they who are sincere. Such are the god fearing. 2:177 According to yusuf al-Qaradawi, verse.5 of the quran 28 makes zakat one of three prerequisites for pagans to become muslims: "but if they repent, establish prayers, and practice zakat they are your brethren in faith". 7 Although, this verse seems to generally list qualities that identify a "brethren in faith" to a muslim. The quran also lists who should receive the benefits of zakat, discussed in more detail below.
15 The collected amount is paid to the poor, the needy, zakat collectors, those sympathetic to Islam, to free from slavery, debtors, in the cause of the Allah and the stranded traveller. No established order of importance is consented upon amongst Islamic scholars (see distribution section). Today, in most Muslim-majority countries, zakat contributions are voluntary, while in a handful ( Libya, malaysia, saudi Arabia, sudan, and Yemen zakat is mandated and collected by the state. 16 17 Shias, unlike sunnis, have traditionally regarded zakat as a private and voluntary decision, and they give zakat to imam -sponsored rather than state-sponsored collectors. Contents Etymology edit zakat literally means "that which purifies". 1 zakat is considered a way to purify one's income and wealth from sometimes worldly, impure ways of acquisition. According to sachiko murata and William Chittick, "Just as ablutions purify the body and salat purifies the soul (in Islam so zakat purifies possessions and makes them pleasing to god." 24 25 Doctrine edit quran edit The quran discusses charity in many verses, some. The word zakat, with the meaning used in Islam now, is found, for example, in suras : 7:156, 19:31, 19:55, 21:73, 23:4, 27:3, 30:39, 31:4 and 41:7. 26 27 zakat is found in the early medinan suras and described as obligatory for Muslims.
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Not to be confused with, zagat. For other uses, see, zakat (disambiguation). Silver or gold coinage are one way of essay granting zakat. Arabic : zakāh zaka, "that which purifies 1 also, zakat al-mal zakat almal, "zakat on wealth 2 or, zakah ) 3 is a form of alms-giving treated in, islam as a religious obligation or tax, 4 5 which, by, quranic ranking, is next after prayer. As one of the, five pillars of Islam, zakat is a religious obligation for all Muslims who meet the necessary criteria of wealth. 7, it is a mandatory charitable contribution, the right of the poor to find relief from the rich and is considered to be a tax, or obligatory alms. 8 9, the payment and disputes on zakat have played a major role in the history of Islam, notably during the. 10 11 page needed zakat is based on income and the value of all of one's possessions. 12 13 It is customarily.5 (or 1/40th) 14 of a muslim's total savings and wealth above a minimum amount known as nisab, 15 but Islamic scholars differ on how much nisab is and other aspects of zakat.