Dr Jockel : First priority is to ensure quality assurance and safety operations. Testing and certification enable products to be guaranteed more easily, which in turn removes significant risk from an investment perspective. To respond to this article, please write to the editor: rikki stancich.
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From pv we have a basic knowledge as to what to expect to follow with standardizing the and test process. Csp today : How long until we can expect to see the draft standard? Dr Jockel : It should take about 6 to 12 months. The first step is to establish rules in Germany and then to implement those rules in an international setting. We would most likely target Spain initially because of the best practice in operation of csp. Csp today : What other areas of csp projects is tuv rheinland developing solutions for? Dr Jockel : Beside the test technologies, we are looking at standardizing the process for identifying and evaluating sites and the quality of data used to measure the solar irradiation for a given site. While there is data available from the worldwide meteorology services and satellite images, we provide in addition on-site measurements for up to 6 months, using special equipment to measure solar irradiation. Globally, we are looking at developing a cluster of service that covers the entire spectrum of the project, from site identification, to components testing, third party inspection during construction, handwriting through to consulting and supervision on plant operation. Csp today : What is the advantage of having standardized test and certification procedures?
Csp today : How is tuv rheinland ideally positioned to define the testing standards for csp components? Dr Jocke l: At first we are having a long lasting degenerative leadership position in testing pv components. In csp, you have two parts to the equation: the solar part and the conventional part of the power block, comprising the boiler, the turbine, etc. Setting standards for safety and quality plus efficiency in the latter has been our main business for more than 100 years. But in csp power plants you have to manage differing steam and temperature/pressure conditions from conventional coal-fired plants. Csp today : What are the next steps to establishing the ground rules for csp component certification? Dr Jockel: What we now do is try to harmonise the test procedures and certify those procedures. We need to try to find out (as we did with pv panels) the rules and to establish standard test lab conditions. Furthermore also conventions and rules have to be developed to check on-site running csp plants.
Our latest opening of a new location took place in India a few days ago, given that there are now around 10-20 manufacturers of pv equipment. The Asian markets manufacture so many pv modules, so we wanted to have on-site testing facilities for each of these markets. Csp is a different technology altogether and requires separate test laboratories from. We are currently working with a local partner, the german Aerospace centre (DLR) in Cologne to collaborate in combining their csp laboratory with tuv experience in standardization and certification. Csp today : Which csp technologies will be targeted at the outset? Dr Jockel : we will initially focus on implementing quality assurance rules and establishing harmonized processes and standards for test procedures for parabolic trough components. Csp today : What is the main challenge to establishing test standards for new technologies and how will tuv rheinland draw on its experience from establishing standards in the pv sector? Dr Jockel : The lack of standards and lack of harmonization among current test procedures makes it impossible to establish a single standard, given that currently it is the manufacturers that dominate the test procedures and quality checks as well. From our background in pv, we can draw on our experience of harmonizing existing test procedures, developing new ones if required and finally establishing a common set of rules.
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According to hendel, the document is "foundational to and harmonious with" national efforts to promote quality and improve data maker collection. "In this rapidly evolving area of health information technology, the key to establishing interoperability and information exchange in health care is standardized health care vocabulary/terminology he said. The task force is continuously working with various Standards development Organizations to ensure work is aligned. Keywords: Electronic health Records, registries, delivery of health Care, data collection, medical Informatics, Advisory committees back to listings. Csp today speaks to Dr Wolfgang Jockel, managing director of tuv rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH about plans to introduce an international standards and certification procedure for csp components.
By rikki stancich in Paris, tuv rheinland is leading the race to establish a set of test standards and a certification procedure for parabolic trough mirror and receiver technologies. Csp today talks to Dr Wolfgang Jockel to learn more about the challenges and benefits of standardising test procedures for concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies and when we can expect to see quality assurance certificates for csp trough components. Csp today : Why has tuv rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH opted to establish test standard procedures for csp components? Dr Jockel : we launched our first test site for photovoltaic (PV) technologies in Cologne around 25 years ago. As the pv market mushroomed, we opened up new locations in Japan, China (Shanghai taiwan and the.
Read the buret from the top (0.00 mL) to the bottom (25.00 mL). Never start a titration with the liquid level above.00. Never let the liquid level go below the.00 mL mark. If you need more titrant, stop at the.00 mL mark and refill the buret. Measuring a volume delivered by a buret requires two readings. Always read the buret the same way.
That way, inadvertent systematic reading errors may cancel out. The acc and the American heart Association (AHA) on nov. 14 released an updated methodology for developing clinical data standards. The report, developed by the acc/aha task force on Clinical Data Standards, updates the original methods paper published in 2007 to reflect changes in relationships with industry policies and to emphasize the need for integration of data standards across many organizations and disciplines. The new report is intended to provide the framework necessary to develop clinical data standards that can be applied by various entities to enhance data collection and facilitate seamless data exchange. The report also positions the task force as the clearinghouse for cardiovascular data standards. This stewardship will enable the use of a common lexicon to be used for a wide variety of applications including incorporation into electronic health records, elements for structured reports, the basis for clinical registries and data repositories, and facilitation of regulatory submissions, the report authors. "Health data standardization permits the orderly and accurate transfer of medical information throughout the health care enterprise said Task force Chair Robert. "Harmonized clinical vocabulary is critical to this effort.".
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Reading a buret, since the the smallest graduation on the buret.1 ml, you must try to read "between the lines that is estimate the buret reading to the next smaller unit which.01. The level of a transparent liquid in the buret is measured by "reading" the "bottom" of the meniscus. Please verify that the buret above reads.46. In reading the buret the eye must be positioned at exactly the same level as the miniscus. In the image above, the camera is positioned correctly. By looking at the full circles at the 14, 15, 16 and 17 mL marks, you can see exactly where the camera was positioned. Use the same technique when reading your buret. An error in reading a buret due to incorrect positioning of your eye is call a parallax error.
Stop the titration dolls and read the buret when the phenolphthalein indicator just turns pink with one drop of naoh. This means that although you can add the naoh rapidly at first, at the end point you must be adding it slowly, dropwise. Reading the buret, the meniscus. There exists an attractive force between the molecules of the glass buret and the water filling. Since the water molecules are strongly attracted to the glass silicate molecules, the top of the water column displays a downwardly curved ( concave) surface. This is called a meniscus. Where there is little or no glass to liquid attraction relative to the molecular attraction of the liquid to itself, the miniscus becomes convex. (The middle of the miniscus is higher than the edges.) Mercury is such a liquid.
is toward the top of the buret. The stopcock at the bottom of the buret allows you to start and stop the liquid flow. Drain to the.00 mL mark, making sure there are no air bubbles in the buret and no drop hanging out of the tip. The reaction flask contains your acid dissolved in water and a couple drops of a dilute phenolphthalein solution. It should sit on a white paper under the buret, with the tip of the buret just inside the flask's neck. Add the naoh from the buret into the reaction flask. Swirl the flask continuously to make sure the reaction is thoroughly mixed as you add the naoh.
Knowing the weight and molecular weight of the acid and the volume of naoh solution used to slogan neutralize the acid, you can calculate the exact Molarity of the naoh solution. Since this is a very important number you will repeat the standardization with another weighed sample of khp. If the molarity for your two standardizations agree to within 1, you can. Otherwise try a third standardization or fourth, fifth. Or maybe you need help! Once you have standardized the naoh solution, you will use it to titrate known amounts of vinegar and a vitamin C tablet. From the amounts of these used and the concentration and volume of the naoh used, you can determine the weight/volume pre cent of acetic acid in the vinegar and the veight of ascorbic acid in the vitamin C tablet.
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Acidtit, acid-base titration, in this experiment you will determine the amount of acetic acid resumes in a vinegar sample and the amount of ascorbic acid in a vitamin C tablet. To do this you will obtain some approximately.2 M sodium hydroxide solution from the stockroom and determine its exact concentration. This process is called standardization. It involves weighing out a known amount of very pure acid called a standard. You will use potassium Hydrogen Phthalate, abbreviated khp. Remember khp is an abbreviation, not a formula! You will measure the volume of naoh solution needed to neutralize this acid.