27 The legend goes, 28 the secret of papermaking was obtained from two Chinese prisoners from the battle of Talas, which led to the first paper mill in the Islamic world being founded in Samarkand in Sogdia (modern-day uzbekistan ). There was a tradition that Muslims would release their prisoners if they could teach ten Muslims any valuable knowledge. 29 There are records of paper being made at Gilgit in pakistan by the sixth century, in Samarkand by 751, in Baghdad by 793, in Egypt by 900, and in Fes, morocco around 1100. 30 The laborious process of paper making was refined and machinery was designed for bulk manufacturing of paper. Production began in Baghdad, where a method was invented to make a thicker sheet of paper, which helped transform papermaking from an art into a major industry. 31 The use of water-powered pulp mills for preparing the pulp material used in papermaking, dates back to samarkand in the 8th century, 32 though this should not be confused with paper mills (see paper mills section below).
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— Endymion Wilkinson Paper became central to the three arts of China poetry, painting, and calligraphy. In later times paper constituted one of the 'four Treasures of the Scholar's Studio alongside the brush, the ink, and the inkstone. Paper in holiday Asia edit further information: Dunhuang manuscripts After its origin in central China, the production and use of paper spread steadily. It is clear that paper was used at Dunhuang by ad 150, in loulan in the modern-day province of Xinjiang by 200, and in Turpan by 399. Paper was concurrently introduced in Japan sometime between the years 280 and 610. 24 vietnam edit paper spread to vietnam in the 3rd century. Korea edit paper spread to korea in the 4th century. Japan edit paper spread to japan in the 5th century. India edit paper spread to India in the 7th century. 25 However, the use of paper was not widespread there until the 12th century. 26 Islamic world edit paper page fragment from a coptic language bible from Egypt in the Islamic period, 700s ad or later After the defeat of the Chinese in the battle of Talas in 751 (present day kyrgyzstan the invention spread to the middle east.
The venetian Domenico Grimani 's collection numbered 15,000 volumes by the time of his death in 1523. After 1600, european collections completely overtook those in China. The bibliotheca augusta numbered 60,000 volumes in 1649 and surged teresa to 120,000 in 1666. In the 1720s the bibliotheque du roi numbered 80,000 books and the cambridge University 40,000 in 1715. After 1700, libraries in North America also began to overtake those of China, and toward the end of the century, thomas Jefferson 's private collection numbered 4,889 titles in 6,487 volumes. The european advantage only increased further into the 19th century as national collections in Europe and America exceeded a million volumes while a few private collections, such as that of Lord Action, reached 70,000. European book production began to catch up with China after the introduction of the mechanical printing press in the mid fifteenth century. Reliable figures of the number of imprints of each edition are as hard to find in Europe as they are in China, but one result of the spread of printing in Europe was that public and private libraries were able to build up their collections.
From the fourth century ce to about 1500, the biggest library collections really in China were three to four times larger than the largest collections in Europe. The imperial government book collections in the tang numbered about 5,000 to 6,000 titles (89,000 juan ) in 721. The song imperial collections at their height in the early twelfth century may have risen to 4,000 to 5,000 titles. These are indeed impressive numbers, but the imperial libraries were exceptional in China and their use was highly restricted. Only very few libraries in the tang and Song held more than one or two thousand titles (a size not even matched by the manuscript collections of the grandest of the great cathedral libraries in Europe). — Endymion Wilkinson However despite the initial advantage afforded to China by the paper medium, by the 9th century its spread and development in the middle east had closed the gap between the two regions. Between the 9th to early 12th centuries, libraries in cairo, baghdad, and Cordoba held collections larger than even the ones in China, and dwarfed those in Europe. From about 1500 the maturation of paper making and printing lab in southern Europe also had an effect in closing the gap with the Chinese.
Textual culture seems to have been more developed in the south by the early 5th century, with individuals owning collections of several thousand scrolls. In the north an entire palace collection might have been only a few thousand scrolls in total. By the early 6th century, scholars in both the north and south were capable of citing upwards of 400 sources in commentaries on older works. A small compilation text from the 7th century included citations to over 1,400 works. The personal nature of texts was remarked upon by a late 6th century imperial librarian. According to him, the possession of and familiarity with a few hundred scrolls was what it took to be socially accepted as an educated man. According to Endymion Wilkinson, one consequence of the rise of paper in China was that "it rapidly began to surpass the mediterranean empires in book production." During the tang dynasty, china became the world leader in book production. In addition the gradual spread of woodblock printing from the late tang and Song further boosted their lead ahead of the rest of the world.
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Toilet paper was used in China from around the late 6th century. 13 In 589, the Chinese scholar-official Yan Zhitui (531591) wrote: "Paper on which there are"tions or commentaries from five classics or the names of sages, i dare not use for toilet purposes". 13 An Arab traveler who visited China wrote of the curious Chinese tradition of toilet paper in 851, writing: ". . the Chinese do not wash themselves with water when they have done their necessities; but they only wipe themselves with paper". 13 During the tang dynasty (618907) paper was folded and sewn into square bags to preserve the flavor summary of tea. In the same period, it was written that tea was served from baskets with multi-colored paper cups and paper napkins of different size and shape.
11 During the song dynasty (9601279) the government produced the world's first known paper-printed money, or banknote ( see jiaozi and huizi ). Paper money was bestowed as gifts to government officials in special paper envelopes. 13 During the yuan dynasty (12711368 the first well-documented Europeans in Medieval China, the venetian merchant Marco polo remarked how the Chinese burned paper effigies shaped as male and female servants, camels, horses, suits of clothing and armor while cremating the dead during funerary rites. 14 Impact of paper edit According to timothy hugh Barrett, paper played a pivotal role in early Chinese written culture, and a "strong reading culture seems to have developed quickly after its introduction, despite political fragmentation." Indeed the introduction of paper had immense consequences for. It meant books would no longer have to be circulated in small sections or bundles, but in their entirety. Books could now be carried by hand rather than transported by cart. As a result individual collections of literary works increased in the following centuries.
From this time, paper has been in use everywhere and is universally called the paper of Marquis Tshai. The production process may have originated from the practice of pounding and stirring rags in water, after which the matted fibres were collected on a mat. The bark of Paper Mulberry was particularly valued and high quality paper was developed in the late han period using the bark of tan sandalwood ). In the eastern Jin period a fine bamboo screen-mould treated with insecticidal dye for permanence was used in papermaking. After printing was popularized during the song dynasty the demand for paper grew substantially.
In the year 1101,.5 million sheets of paper were sent to the capital. 10 Uses edit Open, it stretches; closed, it rolls. It can be contracted or expanded; hidden away or displayed. — fu xian Among the earliest known uses of paper was padding and wrapping delicate bronze mirrors according to archaeological evidence dating to the reign of Emperor wu of Han from the 2nd century. 11 Padding doubled as both protection for the object as well as the user in cases where poisonous "medicine" were involved, as mentioned in the official history of the period. 11 Although paper was used for writing by the 3rd century ad, 12 paper continued to be used for wrapping (and other) purposes.
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50121) is credited as the inventor of a method of papermaking (inspired by wasps and bees) using rags and other plant fibers in 105. However, the discovery of specimens bearing written Chinese characters in 2006 at Fangmatan in north-east China's Gansu Province suggests that paper was in use by the ancient Chinese military more than 100 years before cai, in 8 bc, and possibly much earlier as the map. 6 It therefore would appear that "cai lun's contribution was to improve this skill systematically and scientifically, fix a recipe words for papermaking". 9 The record in the Twenty-four Histories says 10 In ancient times writings and inscriptions were generally made on tablets of bamboo or on pieces of silk called chih. But silk being costly and bamboos heavy they were not convenient to use. Tshai lun review then initiated the idea of making paper from the bark of trees, remnants of hemp, rags of cloth and fishing nets. He submitted the process to the emperor in the first year of yuan-Hsing (105 AD) and received praise for his ability.
The earliest extant paper fragment was unearthed at Fangmatan in Gansu province, and was likely part of a map, dated to 179141. 6 Fragments of paper have also been found at Dunhuang dated to 65 bc and at Yumen pass, dated to. "cai lun's" invention, recorded hundreds of years after it took place, is dated to 105. The innovation is a type of paper made of mulberry and other bast fibres along with fishing nets, old rags, and hemp waste which reduced the cost of paper production, which prior to this, and later, in the west, depended solely on rags. 8 Techniques edit during the Shang (16001050 BC) and Zhou (1050256 BC) dynasties of ancient China, documents were ordinarily written on bone or bamboo (on tablets or on bamboo strips sewn and rolled together into scrolls making them very heavy, awkward, and hard to transport. The light material of silk was sometimes used as a recording medium, but was normally too expensive to consider. The han dynasty Chinese court official cai lun (ca.
official involved, who seems to have introduced some improvements in paper manufacture, worked at the palace as a eunuch. Yet just because the new technology was not trumpeted at the time does not mean that it had no effect. On the contrary: up to this point China was lagging behind those mediterranean societies where papyrus was used and where light, inexpensive scrolls could be created. But thereafter the advantage swung the other way, since papyrus, which is composed of organic material not as highly processed as paper, was prone to splitting and deterioration at a much greater rate; this may be why vellum eventually came to dominate, especially in the. Paper, by contrast, gave a good, uniform writing surface that could be smoothly rolled and unrolled without damage, while remaining relatively durable. Barrett In the pre-columbian Americas, a type of early bark paper known as amate was used as a folded writing material for codices. The earliest sample of amate was found at huitzilapa near the magdalena municipality, jalisco, mexico, belonging to the shaft tomb culture. 4 Paper in China edit earliest known extant paper fragment unearthed at Fangmatan, circa 179 bc hemp wrapping paper, western Han period of China, circa 100 bc oldest paper book, dating to ad 256 The world's earliest known printed book (using woodblock printing the diamond. Main article: Papermaking Further information: cai lun Invention of paper, and Science and technology of the han Dynasty Archaeological evidence of papermaking predates the traditional attribution given to cai lun, 5 an imperial eunuch official of the han dynasty (202 bc ad 220 thus the.
By the 13th century, papermaking was refined with paper mills utilizing waterwheels in Spain. Later European improvements to the papermaking process came in the 19th century with the invention of wood-based papers. Although precursors such as papyrus and amate existed in the, mediterranean world and pre-columbian Americas, respectively, these materials are not defined as true paper. Nor is true parchment considered paper a ; used principally for writing, parchment is heavily prepared animal skin that predates paper and possibly papyrus. In the twentieth century with the advent of plastic manufacture some plastic "paper" was introduced, as well as paper-plastic laminates, paper-metal laminates, and papers infused or coated with different products that give them special properties. Contents, precursors: papyrus and amate edit, the word "paper" is etymologically derived from papyrus, ancient Greek for the, cyperus papyrus plant. Papyrus is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the. Cyperus papyrus plant which was used in ancient Egypt and other Mediterranean societies for writing long before paper was used in China.
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Five seminal steps in ancient, chinese papermaking outlined in a woodcut, paper, a thin unwoven material made from lab milled plant fibers, is primarily used for writing, artwork, and packaging; it is commonly white. The first papermaking process was documented in China during the. Eastern Han period (25220. traditionally attributed to the court official. During the 8th century, chinese papermaking spread to the. Islamic world, where pulp mills and paper mills were used for papermaking and money making. By the 11th century, papermaking was brought to europe.