"Real" hypothesis exist in theory-testing approaches. They are grounded in theory and can be properly tested with data. Such hypothesis are always presented after the theory part and then even further operationalized after or in the methods chapter. 3.5 Principal chapters It is difficult to give some useful advice about the principal chapters, since there exists a large variety. Certain research types / approaches have strong guidelines for content structuring. However, we can try to formulate some general principles.
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A list of some important definitions,. An explanation of the words you use in the title of thesis or the big question. You also can do this in the literature review. A presentation/discussion of the global approach, unless you dedicate a special section to resume this. In the latter case you should just briefly describe the approach in a single short paragraph. A short guide for the reader. It will help the reader finding things and also show that you can provide a rationale for the adopted structure. An introduction of the object(s) you study. If you do some policy implementation research, you may present the context and the legal basis. Notice: A working hypothesis is not a scientific hypothesis that can be tested. It's just a more aggressively formulated general research question.
What you wanted to find out. Implicitly or explicitly defines a scope The "language". Which major concepts you use, word definitions you use, etc. Research type, global approach, principal methods used. The structure of your thesis In general, the introduction includes: A description of your research subject (including the big question). A short discussion of the interest of your work and its scope (including what you will not do). A synthetic list of research questions and/or working hypothesis engelsk (if your research is rather theory-finding). Alternatively, they may appear after the literature review part.
3.3 Abstract This is often mandatory If it is not, you also may summarize your thesis as a paragraph in the introduction.4 Introduction The introduction (as well as the conclusion) is the most important chapter of your thesis. Some people will decide to read or not to read your thesis after looking at the first page. Even serious readers like the jury, will read the introduction first and they should clearly understand what you did. Also make sure that they find your subject interesting. You outsiders have to frame readers. A reader must understand: Elements Details The big question. Summarizes your subject,.
He/she probably deserves it and even if he/she doesn't, it's good policy. 3.2 Table of contents of tables and figures Mandatory position: At start and after the foreword Must match titles in the text (this should be obvious). Even Word can generate this easily. You also should add tables for the figures and the tables. This will allow people finding synthetic information. Do not forget that you don't just write a thesis for a jury. Other people may read it and they want to do this fast and maybe just find some bit of information as quickly as possible.
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Notice: In ms word 2003 adding chapter headings is painstaking labour since you have to do this for each section, so you may skip this. But any real word processor can do this really easily. Line length Don't write long lines! Readers will get lost Simply use decent margins and don't use small fonts (10pt is too small) you may indent titles to the left (certainly not to the right as some lionel word default styles will do) Some "modern additions" Use boxes to present "special information". Use side headers (also very difficult to do in Word 2003). Figures an tables Label and number each of these.
If you work with a real word processor, let them float to the top or the bottom of the page. If you use word, you can do this manually (but only the day before you turn it in). Fonts Use a font with serifs (e.g. Palatino or Times Roman) Non serif fonts may look prettier to you, but they diminuish readability since serif fonts add some "invisible line" that the reader's brain will use to keep track. 3 The organization of a thesis Here are the most important parts of an academic piece:.1 Foreword The foreword is not part of your thesis. You may use it to: thank people and tell them how much you like your cat explain why you have chosen this subject (maybe) excuse yourself for things to didn't do announce some followup Things that relate to your work belong to the introduction Tip.
Do not use too many section levels (like. Your thesis is not a military or administrative operations manual, but a flow of connected ideas. Too many levels will make orientation difficult for the reader. He won't understand where. You may add unnumbered titles at the section or sub-section level or maybe use something like (a).
Each numbered sub-section represents an important topic Titles should summarize a topic (without being too long) you have to find a compromise between: flow of argumentation (avoid sub-titles because the "cut" intro a text) structure (use sub-titles to separate topics) readability (use un-numbered sub-titles. Make sure to consult official guidelines too! Page numbering Either just number from 0 to n or use the more sophisticate following scheme: Roman numbers for preface, table of contents etc. Normal (arabic) numbers for the main part Something like a-1, etc. Headers and footers On top of left pages you should put the current chapter title On top of right pages you should put the current section title On bottom right (and if you use left/right pages, also on bottom left) include the page number. Make sure to do this for early drafts too. I hate students that present drafts without table of contents and numbered pages and your advisor will hate you too - daniel.
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Ignore my advice, but then only spend your last day with manual formatting. Professionals do it this way each type of paragraph has its own style never use tabs or empty lines (e.g. Paragraphs are separated by space, not an empty line, so add horizontal space to the paragraph style element definition). Your list of styles you need at least the following elements: Numbered Chapter, numbered section, numbered sub-section and unnumbered sub-section. If you use ms word, just front define styles for heading 1 to heading. List elements (bullet list items and enumerated items). You may, but usually don't have to define these at two levels Normal paragraphs Citation paragraphs (indented) A style for fixed formats if you plan to present code One ore more good table styles Figure captions Tip: read Microsoft Word for some advice. 2.2 Titles et sections Here is some advice about titles and sections The table of contents not only is a navigation tool but it indirectly defines your argumentation flow. This is why wording of titles and structure is important.
I had to write a wiki entry about. Microsoft Word before writing a larger text. I usually use Framemaker which is very different because it was designed for people that write real text and I had to make a real effort to adapt to ms word. Schneider, here is a list of "must know" things: Define styles (and make sure to configure ms word that will inhibit modifications on fly them or addition of new styles). Automatically create tables of contents and figures. Create indexes, automatically number titles, create stable numbered lists, don't loose days with repetitive re-fomatting. There exist two "formatting" strategies. Either learn how to create a good list of styles (you may need between punjabi 15 and 30 for a master thesis depending on your research type.
objectives, the theorectical background, the questions, how you did it and your answers (results). 2 Presentation and typographic structure, let's first a look at some superficial presentation issues. 2.1 The word processor. Start by admitting that you don't know how to use a word processor.
The research design) defines and organizes your work according to logical criteria. The research planning (i.e. The little section at the end of your research plan) organizes your time according to workpackages and deliverables. Research is just done and not told,. You do not tell people your personal experience with this. The thesis is not a story. It presents the results of your research (including a literature life review and and methodological explanation on how you did it).
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This is part of the methodology tutorial. Contents 1 Introduction, learning goals, understand that a master thesis is an argument. Learn how to sequence a thesis. Understand that you may have to respect certain standards. Prerequisites moving on, do other research surgery level and target population. Beginners - master thesis, quality, should be ok, although important elements are missing regarding the principal chapters. A thesis is an argument, in other words: The organization of the written theses has nothing to do with the organization of the research plan or its little section on planning. In particular: A research plan (i.e.