A new pattern is emerging in which both partners work outside the home but do not share equally in housework and child care as we see in Western families. In India, the paternalistic attitude of the male has not undergone much change. In spite of such drawbacks and hurdles that still prevail, Indian women (especially educated) are no longer hesitant or apologetic about claiming a share and visibility within the family, at work, in public places, and in the public discourse. Uw computer Science principal lecturer Stuart Reges. A university of Washington lecturer is sparking new debate with an essay claiming that the technology industry is about as close to gender parity as it will ever get because of fundamental differences between men and women, joining the controversial school of thought thrust into. Earlier this week, stuart Reges, a principal lecturer at the uws paul.
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They can get most of the things they want (income, status, identity) without marriage, while they find it harder to find a suitable accomplished mate. This is why their marriage is delayed. With increasing literacy among women in India, their entry into many types of work, formerly the preserve of men, women can now look upon the bearing and raising of their children not as a lifes work in itself but as an episode. It women have started taking mens work, it could be said that men have taken over womens. Young fathers plan could be seen wash up and making beds, caring of the young and doing many other domestic works. The division of labour between sexes has changed somewhat. They do similar work and share both household activities and tastes. Women wear trousers, jeans, suits and put on ties. The facts about working wives suggest a basic change in Indian family. The traditional (nuclear) household, in which the husband works and the wife remains at home to care for the children, though still a dominant pattern, is changing gradually essay but steadily.
Sociologist Robert Blood (1965) observes, Employment emancipates women from domination by their husbands and secondarily, raises their daughters from inferiority to their brothers with (Blood and Wolfe, 1965). In brief, economic independence of women is changing their overall equations, perspective and outlook. Economic independence of women has also affected the gender relationships. New forms of gender relationships (live-in relationship are challenging the long-rooted conception of marriages as a permanent arrangement between families and communities. In traditional marriages the relationships were hierarchical and authoritarian. The modem conjugal relationships are based on freedom and desire rather than convention. Peoples attitudes about marriage are also changing. Educated women now feel that there is more to life than marriage.
Women are earning as much as their husbands do, their employment nonetheless adds substantially to family and gives family an economic advantage over the family with only one breadwinner. This new phenomenon has also given economic power in the hands of summary women for words which they were earlier totally dependent on males. Economically independent women feel more confident about their personal lives. Hence, they are taking more personal decisions, for instance, about their further education, marriage, etc. More and more women want freedom of work and control their own reproduction, freedom of mobility and freedom to define ones own style of life. It is contended that freedom leads to greater openness, generosity and tolerance. This new pattern of working wives and mothers has affected the status of women in many ways. Womens monetary independence leads them to the way to empowerment.
In fact, almost everywhere, including India, more women are employed, though their share is still very low. Manufacturing work, traditionally a male preserve, has declined, while jobs in services have expanded, reducing the demand for manual labour and putting the sexes on equal footing. We can now see women in almost every field: architecture, lawyers, financial services, engineering, medical and it jobs. They have also entered service occupations such as a nurse, a beautician, a sales worker, a waitress, etc. Advertisements: They are increasingly and gradually seen marching into domains which were previously reserved for males (police, drivers army, pilots, chartered accountants, commandos). In spite of their increasing number in every field, women still remain perhaps the worlds most underutilized resources. Many are still excluded from paid work and many do not make best use of their skills. The rapid pace of economic development has increased the demand for educated female labour force almost in all fields.
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The Act is applicable on all women irrespective of caste, creed or religion. It would truly empower Indian women to exercise their rights. To what extent legislative measures have been able to raise the status of women in India? Are women now feel empowered in the sense that they are being equally treated by men in all spheres of life and are able to express ones true feminine urges and energies? These are the important questions to be investigated with regard to womens empowerment in India. We all know that girls are now doing better at school than boys.
The annual results of Secondary and Higher Secondary board examinations reveal this fact. More women are getting degrees than men, and are filling most new jobs in every field. There was a time when womens education was not a priority even among the elite. Since the last quarter of the 20th century and more so after the opening up essay of die economy, post-1991, a growing number of women have been entering into the economic field, seeking paid work (remunerative jobs) outside the family. Women are playing bigger and bigger role in economic field: as workers, consumers, entrepreneurs, managers and investors. According to a report of The business Economist, women and the world Economy, in 1950, only one-third of American women of working age had a paid job. Today, two-thirds do, and women make up almost half of Americans workforce.
For a long time women in India remained within the four walls of their household. Their dependence on menfolk was total. A long struggle going back over a century has brought women the property rights, voting rights, an equality in civil rights before the law in matters of marriage and employment (in India women had not to struggle for voting rights as we find in other. In addition to the above rights, in India, the customs of purdha (veil system female infanticide, child marriage, sati system (self-immolation by the women with their husbands dowry system and the state of permanent widowhood were either totally removed or checked to an appreciable extent. Advertisements: Two Acts have also been enacted to emancipate women in India.
These are: Protection of Women from Domestic violence Act, 2005 and the compulsory registration of Marriage Act, 2006. The domestic violence Act recognizes that abuse be physical as well as mental. Anything that makes a woman feel inferior and takes away her self-respect is abuse. Compulsory registration of Marriage Act can be beneficial in preventing the abuse of institution of marriage and hindering social justice especially in relation to women. It would help the innumerable women in the country who get abandoned by their husbands and have no means of proving their marital status. It would also help check child marriages, bigamy and polygamy, enable women to seek maintenance and custody of their children and widows can claim inheritance rights.
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It is held that women now cannot be asked to wait for any more for equality. Inequalities between men and women and discrimination against women have also been age-old issues all over outsiders the world. Thus, womens quest for equality with man is a universal phenomenon. What exists for men is demanded by women? Advertisements: They have demanded equality with men in matters of education, employment, inheritance, marriage, politics and recently in the field of religion also to serve as cleric (in Hinduism and Islam). Women want to have for themselves the same strategies of change which menfolk have had over the centuries such as equal pay for equal work. Their quest for equality has given birth to the formation of many womens associations and launching of movements. The position and status of women all over the world has risen incredibly in the 20th century. We find that it has been very low in 18th and 19th centuries in India and elsewhere when they were treated like objects that can be bought and sold.plan
Over the years, researchers have proposed different theories to explain the erosion of marriage in the lower classes: the rise of welfare, or the disappearance of work and thus of marriageable men. But Edin thinks the most compelling theory is that marriage has disappeared because women are setting the terms—and setting them too high bat for the men around them to reach. I want that white-picket-fence dream, one woman told Edin, and the men she knew just didnt measure up, so she had become her own one-woman The whole countrys future could look much as the present does for many lower-class African Americans: the mothers pull themselves. First-generation college-educated white women may join their black counterparts in a new kind of middle class, where marriage is increasingly rare. Advertisements: Essay on Women Empowerment in India! The subject of empowerment of women has becoming a burning issue all over the world including India since last few decades. Many agencies of United Nations in their reports have emphasized that gender issue is to be given utmost priority.
of children being born to unmarried parents has spread to barrios and trailer parks and rural areas and small towns, Edin says, and it is creeping up the class ladder. After staying steady for a while, the portion of American children born to unmarried parents jumped to 40 percent in the past few years. Many of their mothers are struggling financially; the most successful are working and going to school and hustling to feed the children, and then falling asleep in the elevator of the community college. Still, they are in charge. The family changes over the past four decades have been bad for men and bad for kids, but its not clear they are bad for women, says. Bradford Wilcox, the head of the University of Virginias National Marriage Project.
Many of these neighborhoods, she found, had writing turned into matriarchies, with women making all the decisions and dictating what the men should and should not. I think something feminists have missed, Edin told me, is how much power women have when theyre not bound by marriage. The women, she explained, make every important decision—whether to have a baby, how to raise it, where to live. Its definitely my way or the highway, she said. Thirty years ago, cultural norms were such that the fathers might have said, Great, catch me if you can. Now they are desperate to father, but they are pessimistic about whether they can meet her expectations. The women dont want them as husbands, and they have no steady income to provide.
Men and, women in Our Modern Society - writeWork
The terms of marriage have changed radically since 1970. Typically, womens income has been the main factor in determining whether a family moves up the class ladder or stays stagnant. And increasing numbers of women—unable to find men with a similar income and education—are forgoing marriage altogether. In 1970, 84 percent of women ages 30 to 44 were married; now 60 percent are. In 2007, among American women without a high-school diploma, 43 percent were married. And yet, for all the hand-wringing over the lonely spinster, the real loser in society—the only one essay to have made just slight financial gains since the 1970s—is the single man, whether poor or rich, college-educated or not. Hens rejoice; its the bachelor party thats over. The sociologist Kathryn Edin spent five years talking with low-income mothers in the inner suburbs of Philadelphia.