35 36 Hydrocracking is a refinery method that uses elevated temperatures and pressure in the presence of a catalyst to break down larger molecules, such as those found in vegetable oils, into shorter hydrocarbon chains used in diesel engines. 37 It may also be called renewable diesel, hydrotreated vegetable oil 37 or hydrogen-derived renewable diesel. 36 Green diesel has the same chemical properties as petroleum-based diesel. 37 It does not require new engines, pipelines or infrastructure to distribute and use, but has not been produced at a cost that is competitive with petroleum. 36 Gasoline versions are also being developed. 38 Green diesel is being developed in louisiana and Singapore by conocoPhillips, neste oil, valero, dynamic fuels, and Honeywell uop 36 39 as well as Preem in Gothenburg, Sweden, creating what is known as evolution diesel. 40 biofuel gasoline edit In 2013 uk researchers developed a genetically modified strain. Coli, which could transform glucose into biofuel gasoline that does not need to be blended.
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31 It is the leading European producer of biodiesel. 30 Other bioalcohols edit methanol is currently produced from natural gas, a non-renewable fossil fuel. In the future it is hoped to be produced from biomass as biomethanol. This is technically feasible, but the production is currently being postponed for concerns of Jacob. Gibbs and Brinsley coleberd that the economic viability is still pending. 32 The methanol economy is an alternative to the hydrogen economy, compared to today's hydrogen production from natural gas. Butanol (C 4H 9OH) is formed by organizing abe fermentation (acetone, butanol, ethanol) and experimental modifications of the process show potentially high net energy gains with butanol as the only liquid product. Butanol will produce more energy and allegedly can be burned "straight" in existing gasoline engines (without modification to the engine or car 33 and is less corrosive and less water-soluble than ethanol, and could be distributed via existing infrastructures. Dupont and bp are working together to help develop butanol. Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism. 34 Green diesel edit main article: Vegetable oil refining Green diesel is produced through hydrocracking biological oil feedstocks, such as vegetable oils and animal fats.
This improves the combustion of biodiesel and reduces the particulate emissions from unburnt carbon. However, using pure biodiesel may increase nox-emissions 27 biodiesel is also safe to handle and transport because it is non-toxic and biodegradable, and has a high flash point of about 300 F (148 C) compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 125 F (52 C). 28 In the usa, more than 80 of commercial trucks and city buses run on diesel. The emerging us biodiesel market is estimated to have grown 2 to 2005. "By the end of 2006 biodiesel production was estimated to increase fourfold from 2004 to more than" 1 billion us gallons (3,800,000 m3). 29 In France, biodiesel is incorporated at a rate of 8 in the fuel used by all French diesel vehicles. 30 Avril Group produces under the brand diester, a fifth of 11 million tons of biodiesel consumed annually by the european Union.
Note however, that no vehicles are certified for using pure biodiesel before 2014, as there was no emission control protocol available for biodiesel before this date. Electronically controlled ' common rail ' and ' unit injector ' type systems from the late 1990s onwards may only use biodiesel blended with conventional diesel fuel. These engines have finely qualitative metered and atomized multiple-stage injection systems that are very sensitive to the viscosity of the fuel. Many current-generation diesel engines are made so that they can run on B100 without altering the engine itself, although this depends on the fuel rail design. Since biodiesel is an effective solvent and cleans residues deposited by mineral diesel, engine filters may need to be replaced more often, as the biofuel dissolves old deposits in the fuel tank and pipes. It also effectively cleans the engine combustion chamber of carbon deposits, helping to maintain efficiency. In many european countries, a 5 biodiesel blend is widely used and is available at thousands of gas stations. 25 26 biodiesel is also an oxygenated fuel, meaning it contains a reduced amount of carbon and higher hydrogen and oxygen content than fossil diesel.
Chemically, it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) esters ( fames ). Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, vegetable oils, soy, rapeseed, jatropha, mahua, mustard, flax, sunflower, palm oil, hemp, field pennycress, pongamia pinnata and algae. Pure biodiesel (B100, also known as "neat" biodiesel) currently reduces emissions with up to 60 compared to diesel Second generation B100. 24 Targray biofuels division railcar transporting biodiesel. Biodiesel can be used in any diesel engine when mixed with mineral diesel. In some countries, manufacturers cover their diesel engines under warranty for B100 use, although Volkswagen of Germany, for example, asks drivers to check by telephone with the vw environmental services department before switching to B100. B100 may become more viscous at lower temperatures, depending on the feedstock used. In most cases, biodiesel is compatible with diesel engines from 1994 onwards, which use ' viton ' (by dupont ) synthetic rubber in their mechanical fuel injection systems.
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Ethanol has a smaller energy density than that of gasoline; this means it takes more fuel (volume and mass) to produce the same amount of work. An advantage of ethanol (CH 3CH 2OH) is that it has a higher octane rating than ethanol-free gasoline available at roadside gas stations, which allows an increase of an engine's compression ratio for increased thermal efficiency. In high-altitude (thin air) locations, some states mandate a mix of gasoline and ethanol as a winter oxidizer to reduce atmospheric pollution emissions. Ethanol is also used to fuel bioethanol fireplaces. As they do not require a chimney and are "flueless bioethanol fires 19 are extremely useful for newly built homes and apartments without a flue. The downsides to these fireplaces is that their heat output is slightly less than electric heat or for gas fires, and precautions must be taken to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning.
Corn-to-ethanol and other food stocks has led to the development of cellulosic ethanol. According to a joint research agenda conducted through the us department of Energy, 20 the fossil energy ratios ( fer ) for cellulosic ethanol, corn ethanol, and gasoline are.3,.36, and.81, respectively. Ethanol has roughly one-third lower energy content per unit of volume compared to gasoline. This is partly counteracted by the better efficiency when using ethanol (in a long-term test of more than.1 million km, the best project found ffv vehicles to be 126 more energy efficient than petrol cars, but the volumetric consumption increases by approximately 30,. With current subsidies, ethanol fuel is slightly cheaper per distance traveled in the United States. Citation needed biodiesel edit main article: biodiesel Further information: biodiesel around the world biodiesel is the most common biofuel in Europe. It is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is a liquid similar in composition to fossil/mineral diesel.
16 Some of these fuels are carbon-neutral. The conversion of crude oil from the plant seeds into useful fuels is called transesterification. The following fuels can be produced using first, second, third or fourth-generation biofuel production procedures. Most of these can even be produced using two or three of the different biofuel generation procedures. 17 Ethanol edit main article: Ethanol fuel biologically produced alcohols, most commonly ethanol, and less commonly propanol and butanol, are produced by the action of microorganisms and enzymes through the fermentation of sugars or starches (easiest or cellulose (which is more difficult). Biobutanol (also called biogasoline) is often claimed to provide a direct replacement for gasoline, because it can be used directly in a gasoline engine.
Ethanol fuel is the most common biofuel worldwide, particularly in Brazil. Alcohol fuels are produced by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses and any sugar or starch from which alcoholic beverages such as whiskey, can be made (such as potato and fruit waste, etc.). The ethanol production methods used are enzyme digestion (to release sugars from stored starches fermentation of the sugars, distillation and drying. The distillation process requires significant energy input for heat (sometimes unsustainable natural gas fossil fuel, but cellulosic biomass such as bagasse, the waste left after sugar cane is pressed to extract its juice, is the most common fuel in Brazil, while pellets, wood chips and. Ethanol can be used in petrol engines as a replacement for gasoline; it can be mixed with gasoline to any percentage. Most existing car petrol engines can run on blends of up to 15 bioethanol with petroleum/gasoline.
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11 A self-published article by michael Briggs, at the unh biofuels Group, offers estimates for the realistic replacement of all vehicular fuel with biofuels by using algae that have a natural oil content greater than 50, which Briggs suggests can be grown on algae ponds. 12 This oil-rich algae can then be extracted from the system and processed into biofuels, with the dried remainder further reprocessed to create ethanol. The production of algae to harvest oil for biofuels has not yet been undertaken on a commercial scale, but feasibility studies have been conducted to arrive at the above yield estimate. In addition to its projected high yield, algaculture unlike crop-based biofuels does not entail a decrease in food production, since it requires neither farmland nor dillard fresh water. Many companies are pursuing algae bioreactors for various purposes, including scaling up biofuels production to commercial levels. Teixeira from the University of Alabama in Huntsville demonstrated the extraction of biofuels lipids from wet algae using a simple and economical reaction in ionic liquids. 15 fourth-generation biofuels edit similarly to third-generation biofuels, fourth-generation biofuels are made using non-arable land. However, unlike third-generation biofuels, they do not require the destruction of biomass. This class of biofuels includes electrofuels 6 great and photobiological solar fuels.
Biomass is derived from plant materials, but can also include animal materials. Whereas first generation biofuels are made from the sugars and vegetable oils found in arable crops, second generation biofuels are made from lignocellulosic biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste plant material (from food crops but they have already fulfilled their food purpose). 7 The feedstock used to generate second-generation biofuels should grow on lands which cannot be used to effectively grow food and their growing should not consume the lots of water or fertilizer. The feedstock sources include grasses, jatropha and other seed crops, waste vegetable oil, municipal solid waste and so forth. 8 This has both advantages and disadvantages. The advantage is that, unlike with regular food crops, no arable land is used solely for the production of fuel. The disadvantage is that unlike with regular food crops, it may be rather difficult to extract the fuel. For instance, a series of physical and chemical treatments might be required to convert lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels suitable for transportation. 9 10 Third-generation biofuels edit main articles: Algaculture and Algae fuel From 1978 to 1996, the us nrel experimented with using algae as a biofuels source in the " Aquatic Species Program ".
Agency has a goal for biofuels to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050 to reduce dependence on petroleum and coal. 4 The production of biofuels also led into a flourishing automotive industry, where by 2010, 79 of all cars produced in Brazil were made with a hybrid fuel system of bioethanol and gasoline. 5 There are various social, economic, environmental and technical issues relating to biofuels production and use, which have been debated in the popular media and scientific journals. Contents Generations edit first-generation biofuels edit "First-generation" or conventional biofuels are biofuels made from food crops grown on arable land. With this biofuel production generation, food crops are thus explicitly grown for fuel production, and not anything else. The sugar, starch, or vegetable oil obtained from the crops is converted into biodiesel or ethanol, using transesterification, or yeast fermentation. 6 Second-generation biofuels edit main article: Second-generation biofuels Second generation biofuels are fuels manufactured from various types of biomass. Biomass is a wide-ranging term meaning any source of organic carbon that is renewed rapidly as part of the carbon cycle.
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, or sweet sorghum. Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the United States and in Brazil. Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by fermentation. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. In 2010, worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion liters (28 billion gallons us up, 2 and biofuels provided.7 of the world's fuels for road transport. Global ethanol fuel production reached 86 billion liters (23 billion gallons US) in 2010, with the United States and Brazil as the world's top producers, accounting together for about 90 of global production.
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A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. Biofuels can be derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. 1, renewable biofuels generally involve contemporary carbon fixation, such as those that occur in plants or microalgae through the process of photosynthesis. Other renewable biofuels are made through the use or conversion of biomass (referring to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy-containing from substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion. This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. This new biomass can also be used directly for biofuels.