Essay on typhoid

Typhoid: Symptoms, treatment, causes, and prevention

essay on typhoid

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Treatment : Where resistance is uncommon, the treatment of choice is a fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin otherwise a third-generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxone or cefotaxime is the first choice. Cefixime is a suitable oral alternative. Typhoid fever in most cases is not fatal. Antibiotics, such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin, have been commonly used to treat typhoid fever. Treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case-fatality rate to approximately. When untreated, typhoid fever persists for three weeks to a month. Death occurs in between 10 and 30 of untreated cases. Surgical Treatment : Surgery is usually indicated in cases of intestinal perforation.

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This carries on into the fourth and final week. Transmission : The bacteria which causes typhoid fever may be spread through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions, and sometimes also by wallpaper flying insects feeding on faeces. Many carriers of typhoid were locked into an isolation ward never to be released to prevent further typhoid cases. These people often deteriorated mentally, driven mad by the conditions they lived. Diagnosis : diagnosis is made by any blood, bone marrow or stool cultures and with the widal test (demonstration of salmonella antibodies against antigens). Georges Fern and i, widal (1896) divised widal test for diagnosis of Typhoid. Prevention : Sanitation and hygiene arc the critical measures that can be taken to prevent typhoid. Typhoid does not affect animals and therefore transmission is only from human to human. Typhoid can only spread in environments where human faeces or urine are able to come into contact with food or drinking water. Careful food preparation and washing of hands are crucial to preventing typhoid. There are two vaccines licensed for use for the prevention of typhoid: the live, oral Ty21 a vaccine (sold as vivotif Bernd) and the injectable typhoid polysaccharide vaccine (sold as Typhim vi by sanofi pasteur and Typherix by GlaxoSmithKline).

In the third week of typhoid fever, a number of complications can occur:. Intestinal hemorrhage due to bleeding in congested peyers patches. Intestinal perforation in the distal ileum which is a very serious complication. Neuropsychiatry symptoms (described as muttering delirium or coma vigil). Metastatic abscesses like cholecystitis, etc. Advertisements: In the third week the fever is very high and oscillates very little over 24 hours. Dehydration may cause delirium. By the end of third week the fever will start reducing (defervescence).

essay on typhoid

Types of diseases

Rose spots appear on the lower chest and abdomen in few patients. The abdomen is distended and painful in the right lower quadrant. Diarrhea can occur in this stage: six to eight stools in a day, green with a characteristic smell, (comparable to pea soup).However, constipation is also frequent. The spleen and liver are enlarged (hepatosplenomegaly) and tender, and there is elevation of liver (transaminases). The widal reaction is strongly positive with anti o and anti h antibodies. Blood cultures are sometimes still positive at this stage. (The major symptom of this fever is that the fever usually rises in the afternoon up to the first and second week.).

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essay on typhoid

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Typhoid fever, also known as typhoid, is a common worldwide bacterial disease, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the faeces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella typhi, serotype typhi. The disease has received various names, such as gastric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittaut fever, slow fever, nervous fever or pathogenic fever. The name typhoid means resembling typhus and comes from the neuropsychiatric symptoms common to typhoid and typhus. Advertisements: Despite this similarity of their names, typhoid fever and typhus are distinct diseases and are caused by different species of bacteria. The impact of this disease fell sharply with the application of modern sanitation techniques. Signs, symptoms and Life cycle : Classically, the untreated typhoid fever can be divided into four individual stages, each one lasting approximately one week.

In the first week, the temperature rises slowly and fever fluctuations are seen with relative bradycardia, malaise, headache, and cough. A bloody nose (epistaxis) is seen in a quarter of cases and abdominal pain is also possible. There is leukopenia, (a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells with eosinopenia and relative lymphocytosis, a positive reaction and blood cultures are positive for Salmonella typhi or paratyphi. The classic Widal test is negative in the first week. Advertisements: In the second week of the infection, the patient lies with high fever (around 40 c or 104 F) and bradycardia (sphygmothermic dissociation classically with a dicrotic pulse wave. This delirium for gives to typhoid the nickname of nervous fever.

Once typhi bacteria are eaten or drunk, they multiply and spread into the bloodstream. The body reacts with fever and other signs and symptoms. Because the germ is passed in the faeces of infected people, only people with active diarrhoea who are unable to control their bowel habits (infants, certain handicapped individuals) should be isolated. Most infected people may return to work or school when they have recovered, provided that they carefully wash hands after toilet visits. Children in day care and other sensitive settings must obtain the approval of the local or state health department before returning to their routine activities.


Food handlers may not return to work until three consecutive negative stool cultures are confirmed. Typhoid fever is common in most parts of the world except in industrialised regions such as the United States, canada, western Europe, australia, and Japan. Therefore, if you are travelling to the developing world, you should consider taking precautions. Typhoid is slowly disappearing from the. Because of the new and improved preventive measures; the number of cases dropped from 5,595 in 1942 to about 500 in 1979. Compulsory inspection of milk and water supplies, and the pasteurisation of milk in particular, have greatly reduced the incidence of the typhoid bacilli. Advertisements: History of Typhoid : Around 430-424 bc, a devastating plague, which some believe to have been typhoid fever, killed one third of the population of Athens, including their leader Pericles.

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The oral vaccine and vi antigen injectable vaccine generally cause fewer adverse reactions than the heat-inactivated injectable vaccine. All are about equally effective. Vaccination does not offer full summary protection from infection, and travellers should be advised to exercise care in selecting food and drink. Specific antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, ampicillin or ciprofloxacin are often used to treat cases of typhoid. Fatalities are less than 1 percent with antibiotic treatment. After 1948 treatment with antibiotics, particularly with chloramphenicol, proved to be effective. But, there is a rare chance that other serious problems and even death could occur after getting these vaccines. Facts: In the United States about 400 cases occur each year, and 70 of these are acquired while travelling internationally. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about.5 million persons each year.

essay on typhoid

Symptoms generally appear one to three weeks after exposure. Only about 3 percent of cases go on to become lifelong carriers of the germ and this tends to occur more often in adults than in children, but, typhoid can affect men, woman and children of any age. Treatment: keep well hydrated increase fluid intake. Go to the nearest doctor or hospital. Antibiotics can sometimes help. Vaccination should be considered for laboratory workers in potential contact with Salmonella synthesis typhi. Three vaccines are currently available in Australia.

been allowed to sit at room temperature for long periods of time. Dont swim or fish in polluted waters, and dont eat fish that may have been caught in such waters. As a last resort, if no source of safe drinking water is available or can be obtained, tap water that is uncomfortably hot to touch may be safer than cold tap water; however, proper disinfection or boiling is still advised. Mode of Transmission: Salmonella typhi only lives in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. In addition, a small number of persons called carriers, recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Typhoid germs are passed in the faeces and, to some extent, the urine of infected people. The germs are spread by eating or drinking water or foods contaminated by faeces from the infected individual.

Bottled carbonated water is safer than uncarbonated water. Ask for drinks lab without ice unless the ice is made from bottled or boiled water. Avoid icypoles and flavoured ices that may have been made with contaminated water. Eat foods that have been thoroughly cooked and that are still hot and steaming. Avoid raw vegetables and fruits that cannot be peeled. Vegetables like lettuce are easily contaminated and are very hard to wash well. When you eat raw fruit or vegetables that can be peeled, peel them yourself. (Wash your hands with soap first.) do not eat the peelings. Avoid foods and beverages from street vendors.

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Typhoid fever Essay, research Paper, typhoid fever essay: Introduction: Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract and occasionally the bloodstream, and is from the. Risk of infection is greatest for travellers to developing countries who will have prolonged exposure to potentially contaminated food and beverages. Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract and occasionally the bloodstream. Symptoms: fever as high as 103. C severe headache, insomnia, nose bleeding, either diarrhoea or constipation, weakness, Stomach pains, loss of appetite, a rash, Chills, sore throat, And in some cases, rose coloured spots report may appear. Preventive, measures, Isolation of infected person, usually only people who cant control their need to go to the toilet, eg: babies, and some disabled people, personal Hygiene, hand washing before eating, Clean and careful food preparation, Drink safe water, safe water, sanitation. If you drink water, buy it bottled or bring it to boil for 1minute before you drink.


essay on typhoid
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